CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
The constitution of India is the constitution of the republic of India. It was passed by the constituent assembly on November 26,1950. India celebrates January 26 each year as republic day.
It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world,containing 395 articles and 2 schedules for a total of 117,369 words in its English language version.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CONSTITUTION
The constitution down the basic structure of government under which the people are to be ruled. It established the main organs of government -the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, but also demarcates their responsibilities. It regulates the relationship between the government and the people.
The constitution is superior to all other laws of the country. Every law enacted by the government has to be in conformity with the constitution. The constitution law down the national goal of India-Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and national Integration. It also spells out the right and duties of citizens.
HISTORY OF THE CABINET MISSION
Second World War in Europe came to an end on may 9,1945. In July, a new government came to the power in the united kingdom. The new British government announced its Indian policy and decided to convene a constitution Drafting body. Three British cabinet minister were sent to find a solution to the question of India's independence. This team of minister was called the cabinet mission.
The cabinet mission discussed the framework of the constitution and laid down in some details the procedure to be followed by the constitution drafting body. Elections for 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by July-August 1946. With the independence of India on august 15,197, The Constitution assembly became a fully sovereign body. The assembly began work on 9th December 1947.
THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY
The people of India elected the members of the provincial assemblies, who in turn elected the member of the constituent assembly.
The constituent assembly had member belonging to different communities and regions of india. It also had member representing different political persuasions, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee were some important figures in the assembly's discussing. There were more than 30 member of the scheduled classes. The Anglo-Indian community was represented by Frank Anthony and the parsis were represented by H.P.Modi Constitutional experts like Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyer, B.R. Ambedkar, B.N. Rau and K.M. Munshi were also member of the assembly. Sarojani Naidu and Vijaylakshmi Pandit were important women members Dr. Sachindanand Shinha was the first president of the constituent assembly. Later, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected president of constituent assembly while B.R. Ambedkar was appointed the chairman of the drafting committee.
The constituent assembly met for 166 days,spread over a period of 2 years,11 months and 18 days. Its sessions were open to the press and the public.